cancer news

Aldo-Ketose and Cancer Spread

Once again, a good study done outside of the US. It seems that all the good studies for cancer are completed outside the US. What has happed to us? We were the first to put a man on the moon. That was not a simple task either. Let’s be the first to cure cancer!

Research was conducted whereby human bladder cancer cells labeled with luciferase were inoculated into mice, creating a xenograft bladder cancer model. Most of you may be thinking, what is a xenograft? A xenograft which is pronounced like zenograft, is a surgical layer of tissue from one species to a different species. The prefix “xeno-“ means something foreign.

The bladder xenograft grew and metastatic tumors were detected in the lungs, liver and bone after 45 days. They then used a microarray analysis that included more than 20,000 genes for the metastatic tumors and the team then discovered a 3 to 25 fold increase of the metabolic enzyme aldo-keto reductase 1C1 (AKRICI). High levels of AKR1C1 were found in metastatic tumors that were removed from 2 cancer patients, proving that the phenomena discovered in the mice also occur in the human body. Anticancer drugs and an inflammatory substance produced around the tumor, such as interieukin-1B, increased the enzyme levels.

Just so we are clear, if you do the research, you will find that aldo-ketose reduxtase is not a good thing to have happening. This brings about a pathway, or as the scientist call it, a catalyzing effect, that can help cancer spread and replicate.

It was also found by the researchers that AKR1C1 enhances tumor promoting activities and proved that the enzyme blocks the effectiveness of cisplatin and other anticancer drugs.

Finally, they discovered that inoculating flufenamic acid, which is an inhibitory factor for AKR1C1, into cancerous bladder cells suppressed the cells’ invasive activities and restored the effectiveness of anticancer drugs. This acid is also known as a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug used for treating common colds.

This discovery is expected to spur clinical tests that are aimed at improving prognoses for bladder cancer patients. Expensive molecular targeted drugs are being used in the latest cancer treatments, putting a large strain on both the medical economy and the state coffers. This research could pave the way for medical institutions to use flufenamic acid, which is a cheaper cold drug and has unexpectedly been proven to be effective at fighting cancers.

This research was conducted in collaboration with Dr. Nobuo Shinohara of the Department of Renal and Genitourinary Surgery at Hokkaido University. The article’s lead author was postgraduate student Ryuji Matsumoto.

–Dr Fredda Branyon

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