Category Archives: Life

love is respect

Love Is Respect: Teen Dating Violence and How to Intervene

Unhealthy relationship behaviors are those that impact the physical, emotional, and mental health of a victim. According to Choose Respect, a young man or woman’s harmful relationship behaviors often start early and lead to a lifetime of abuse.

Everyone should know the pervasiveness of teen dating violence in the United States, including fellow students, teachers, and parents.

love is respect

10 Facts About Teen Dating Violence

The following information is from Choose Respect, a national initiative to help teenagers and adolescents build healthy relationships to prevent dating violence and abuse.

  1. 1 in 4 adolescents is a victim of physical, verbal, emotional or sexual abuse each year.
  2. About 1 in 5 adolescents report being emotionally abused.
  3. About 1 in 5 high school girls have been physically assaulted or sexually abused by a dating partner.
  4. 54% of high school students report dating violence among their peers.
  5. 1 in 3 teenagers reports to an adult when a peer has been physically hurt by their partner.
  6. 80% of teenagers believe verbal abuse (yelling, name-calling, manipulation, and constant criticism) is a serious issue in their age group.
  7. Almost 80% of girls who are physical abuse victims continue to date their abuser.
  8. Almost 70% of sexually abused teen girls knew their rapist. The perpetrator was a boyfriend, friend, or acquaintance.
  9. Most teen dating abuse happens at home.
  10. Almost 20% of teen girls reported that their boyfriend had threatened violence or self-harm in the event of a break-up.

The effects of dating violence can last a lifetime. It increases the victim’s risk for substance use, sexual risk behaviors, pregnancy, and suicide. If a teen you know is enduring violence in his or her relationship, there are ways you can help.

How to Talk to a Teen in an Abusive Relationship

Keep in mind that teens may not be willing to share unless they trust you. Be consistent, open, and let them tell their story by:

  • Listening. Most teens are socially trained to allow adults or people of authority to interrupt them. The less you interject, the better.
  • Telling them to stop blaming themselves. Most abusers make their victims feel like it’s their fault the violence is happening. Your job is to insist on the opposite. No amount of faultiness or wrongdoing is enough to become violent towards a partner. Abuse is always a choice, and everyone deserves to feel safe in relationships.
  • Understanding conflicting emotions. Fear, low self-esteem, and believing abuse is normal are common reasons people stay in abusive relationships. If your friend is in an unhealthy relationship, please don’t judge! Instead, support them by understanding why they are unable or refuse to leave.
  • Empowering the teen to make the right choice. Forcing a teen somehow provokes them to do the opposite. For example, ordering your son or daughter to break up with their abuser might only encourage them to stay. To prevent further attachment to their abuser, it may help to give them options instead. Share with a teen how your partner treats you. Tell them that a loving relationship should have respect as one of its foundations, making no room for violence and abuse. Then, ask them if this is something they want in their own romantic relationships. Remember to stay consistent yet patient, and never give up until they make the right decision.

To all the teenagers out there, keep in mind that physical and sexual violence is illegal and can put you behind bars. And if you are a victim of teenage dating violence, realize your worth. Last, if you know someone who is suffering from dating violence, be there for them and encourage the need for help. If they are unwilling to listen or talk, at least offer resources that help educate and empower young people to prevent and end unhealthy relationships.

broken heart

Broken Heart Syndrome Is Real (And It Can Kill You)

“Too much love can kill you,” sings Freddie Mercury. Despite the disbelief of many, it is possible.

What is broken heart syndrome?

Each year, usually around Valentine’s Day, news sources publish stories about “broken heart syndrome” or takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The condition occurs when people experience cardiac issues following an episode of extreme emotional distress.

broken heart

According to the Mayo Clinic, “broken heart syndrome is a temporary heart condition that’s often brought on by stressful situations, such as the death of a loved one. The condition can also be triggered by a serious physical illness or surgery.”

How can I die of a broken heart?

A sample case happened in 2016 when actress Debbie Reynolds passed because of a stroke. However, reports say she allegedly died of a broken heart following the death of Carrie Fisher, her daughter who played the iconic role of Princess Leia in the Star Wars films.

When you experience takotsubo cardiomyopathy, a portion of your heart muscle — usually a large part — stops functioning, leading to acute heart failure and death. General signs and symptoms of broken heart syndrome include sudden chest pains and shortness of breath.

How is a heart attack different from broken heart syndrome?

Total or near complete blockage of a heart artery is accountable for heart attacks. Any obstruction results from atherosclerosis—a disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries. In broken heart syndrome, the heart arteries do not have blockages. Instead, there may be reduced blood flow in the arteries.

What causes broken heart syndrome?

The definite cause of broken heart syndrome is unknown. A surge of stress hormones might be at fault, which can temporarily damage the hearts of some people. In most cases, intense physical or emotional situations cause broken heart syndrome. Some potential triggers are:

  • The death of a loved one
  • Relationship problems and divorce
  • A frightening medical diagnosis, such as cancer
  • Losing a lot of money
  • Heated arguments
  • Physical, emotional, and mental abuse
  • Facing phobias
  • Job loss and significant life changes
  • Physical stressors, including an asthma attack, a car accident, and major surgery

It is also possible for certain drugs, although rare, to cause broken heart syndrome. These medications include:

  • Venlafaxine – a treatment for depression.
  • Levothyroxine – a drug for malfunctioning thyroid glands.
  • Epinephrine – treats severe allergic reactions and asthma attacks.
  • Duloxetine – treats nerve problems in diabetics and controls depression in some people.

Are there treatments for broken heart syndrome?

At first, the symptoms of broken heart syndrome will receive the same treatment as a heart attack. Once your doctor confirms the diagnosis, he or she may treat broken heart syndrome with medicines such as:

  • Beta blockers to slow down heart rate
  • Diuretics to reduce fluid buildup
  • ACE inhibitors to lower blood pressure
  • Anti-anxiety medication to manage stress

Any persistent or long-lasting chest contractions could be a sign of broken heart syndrome — or worse, a heart attack. Take the matter seriously and call 911 if you or someone you know have severe chest pains or sudden breathing difficulties.

Learn more about your heart by reading 5 Ways to Keep Your Heart Healthy, Relation of Stress and Heart Attack, and Hawthorn Berry for your Heart.

Total Eclipse of the Brain: How Love Affects Us Like a Drug

Being in love is not a total eclipse of the heart. Love, actually overwhelms our brains with chemicals that induce feelings of pleasure and attachment. These chemicals cause reactions throughout the body, which might help explain that giddy feeling we get when we see a loved one.

Love moves in mysterious ways—but not to science. Let’s stop the pop culture references and take a look at how love affects our mind and body.

You radiate happiness

Love may not be a drug, but it can definitely feel like one. Falling in love triggers the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that controls the brain’s reward and pleasure center. The chemical plays an essential role in feeling happiness.

In one study, researchers scanned 2,500 brain images of 17 individuals who identified themselves as “in love.” Researchers discovered that participants who looked at a photo of the person they loved showed brain activity in two areas associated with dopamine: the caudate nucleus and ventral tegmental area. This phenomenon explains the “high” feeling new lovers often experience.

Your stress levels fluctuate depending on the stage of your relationship

To some, realizing a simple “crush” has flourished into “love” can be stressful. There are many uncertainties, including whether they feel the same way, the chance of rejection, and the anxiety of when to say those three big words. According to a 2004 study, the initial stages of falling in love can increase levels of cortisol—a stress hormone. However, after retesting the participants 12 to 24 months later, their cortisol levels had returned to normal.

Kissing and hugging someone you romantically love can immediately reduce stress and increase feelings of tranquil, trust, and security. Your mood will also improve because of your reward center flooding with dopamine.

Your blood pressure stabilizes

Elevated blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is a life-threatening condition that increases your risk for stroke, heart attack, and kidney failure. Aside from proper medication and healthy lifestyle changes, research suggests that falling in love can serve as a natural and inexpensive way to reduce blood pressure levels.

One study that examined the relationship between marriage, physical health, and longevity found that happily married couples have lower blood pressures and reduced risks for cardiovascular disease.

Like a drug, you can feel addicted to your partner

Certain drugs and medications can light up your pleasure center. Love has a similar effect and can be addictive in its own way.

Official medical classification guides do not classify love as an addiction. However, a 2017 study suggests that there is a link between addiction and love. According to the authors, love can be addictive because it is a need that can be temporarily satisfied. Conversely, love can lead to destructive behaviors if not fulfilled for prolonged periods.

Think of the person you love most or the last time you ran into someone attractive. Time may have stopped, your palms may have sweated, and chances are your heart was pounding in your chest. It’s no wonder why people thought love arose from the heart. The truth is, love is all about the brain – which, in turn, makes the rest of our body go haywire.

birth order

Does Birth Order Affect Who We Are?

birth order

Have you ever wondered if our birth order really does affect us or not?  If you are a firstborn or even an only child, you may be more likely to become a doctor or lawyer. The younger siblings more often turn to the arts or the outdoors, so we can partially credit our parenting to the job of our choice.

The older or single children are often overprotected by the parents so they tend to follow more brain-based interests. Parents are usually more relaxed and hands-off with those children born after the first child. Twenty-one of 23 American astronauts were firstborn children.  Other famous firstborns were Winston Churchill, Hillary Clinton, and Oprah Winfrey. Most CEO’s are also firstborns. A survey completed in 2007 of corporate leaders found that 43% were firstborns, 33% were middle children and 23% were youngest children.

The younger siblings are more likely to play contact sports and the ones more likely to put on the pads or go ski jumping, skydiving, motorcycle racing or to play lacrosse.

They conducted a study that looked at birth order and “dangerous” sports in college students and found that the firstborn men were more likely to avoid those sports while the younger brothers were more dare devilish.  Much more quality time is given to firstborns compared with their younger siblings. They actually get as much as 3,000 more hours of quality time with parents than the younger siblings do at the same age.

If there are two or more kids there is less total free time than when there was just a firstborn. Also, as the moms get older, they feel closest to their youngest child and report feeling closest to their “babies” no matter what the family size or spacing between kids.

In the study, mothers said firstborns were the ones they’d turn to when facing personal problems or a crisis.  

An only child or firstborn tends to try to be perfect more than the laterborns. Those without siblings are often treated like little adults and seem to have this trait more.  Most of us are born with other siblings.

Children who are spaced less than two years apart quite often have more conflict than those born more than two years apart, according to pediatricians.

It was also found that parents call the doctor less often with later-born children. That “parents learning curve” on how to care for a child is usually tested with the firstborn.  All doctors report that they receive more calls from parents with a first born child and the parents need to build confidence in figuring out which problems a doctor can help with and which they can handle on their own.

Dr Fredda Branyon

hospital ward

Facts About Chemo

hospital ward

Just hearing the word “chemo” scares the heck out of most of us after what we’ve either seen in movies or on TV and what we’ve been told by our loved ones that have endured the treatments of chemo. Oh! I must also include how it seems the oncologist frightens us by using the fear tactics.  If this is what anyone is facing, it can be very hard and have side effects, but some things of what certain people have been through with chemo might surprise you.

Camille Noe Pagan has listed some of the things.

  • Marisa C. Weiss, MD, and author of Living Well Beyond Breast Cancer reveals that one of the biggest things patients complain about is how many people share cancer “horror stories” with them while they are in the middle of treatment. She suggested thanking them for caring, but let them know you do not want to hear stories about other people and their experiences right then.
  • Dana Kuznetzkoff, a New York film, and TV producer was treated for lymphoma in 2010 and suggested that you talk with the nurses, as they are the ones who will tell you exactly what you need to know.  She suggests also that you should listen to other people who’ve been there or who are involved in your care.
  • Most realize they will lose their hair but quite often they are not told their nails might fall off as well. It is important to know just what reactions might be possible when taking chemo. There are many types and the side effects depend on what kind you get and how your body reacts to it.  Common effects are hair loss and nausea, but not everyone has that happen. There might also be trouble with memory and concentration, feeling dizzy or having pain and numbness during or after chemo.  These are not usually talked about.
  • You are a person with a full life and not just a cancer patient, so even those little daily routines can give you comfort as an anchor when cancer rocks your world.  Be realistic about it though and keep flexible. Working during treatment is fine as long as you feel well enough, but take the time off following a treatment or when you most experience negative effects.  Most want to make their own decisions and take care of themselves. If they enjoy working, then they should continue as often as they feel capable. Speaking with a counselor for support can help.
  • Feeling depressed when chemo’s finally over is a normal feeling. Friends and family may want to celebrate the end of your treatment because they don’t realize you may feel blue, anxious, let down or even scared.  When you are done with treatment, everything and everyone goes back to normal and you are still experiencing mental and physical side effects, so you still need that support.  Counseling, support groups, exercise and taking time for yourself can help you feel better and ease back into your post-treatment life.

An alternative treatment is usually without extreme side effects, so checking that out is another option for those facing chemo.

Dr Fredda Branyon

lemon and salt

Lemon & Salt Tonic

lemon and salt

There are many potential benefits of real sea salt and lemon. The sea salt has been proven throughout the years and through science that moderate levels of this is actually good for your heart health and does not negatively affect blood pressure.  Stephen Seifert wrote an article reviewing the benefits of sea salt combined with lemon.

At the start of our day, we all have that special health practice or routine to take us through the rest of the day that is vital to health and happiness.  How about trying a glass of warm lemon water with Himalayan salt? This simple little drink each morning may boost your health and wellness regimen, and it is so very easy to make. Many of the professional athletes and Olympians start their morning out with lemon and salt water.

Just a mere 10-ounce glass of warm lemon water with Himalayan salt can increase your immune function, improve digestion, decrease uric acid to fight inflammation and balance your overall body. 

As we all know, lemons are excellent for fighting inflammation as they can dissolve the uric acid in your joints and help to build and repair tendons, ligaments, and bone. The American College of Physicians study on osteoarthritis confirms that lemon may be especially beneficial for those with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

A glass of this mixture of lemon water with Himalayan salt might provide a better overall mineral balance that will promote proper food and water absorption in your body that will allow essential nutrients to get where they should be. The lemon has alkalizing effects and coupled with natural salt, are highly useful for managing your body’s pH balance, which is crucial for the optimal functioning of the body’s systems. A lemon will provide up to 139% of your daily value for vitamin C and could be an alternative to that vitamin C supplement you might be taking.

Other benefits are to use as a detox for your cells, reducing problematic cellulite, clearing up skin and adding a fresh glow, using for allergy season, paving the way for better sleep, helping to control blood sugar, detoxifying your liver, freshening your breath, helping you to chill out, reducing blood pressure and boosting your libido. This little drink in the morning may also get you hydrated right at the start, serve as an antioxidant powerhouse, improve your heart health and promote digestive health.

Why take the supplements when a very natural lemon and Himalayan salt may do the trick? Just look at all the benefits you may reap from adding this morning ritual to your daily routine.  Try it, you might like it!

Dr Fredda Branyon

cancer mortality dropped

Cancer Mortality Dropping

cancer mortality dropped

According to the latest Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, with the exception of two forms, the 5-year survival rates for almost all cancer types have increased significantly. Ana Sandoiu has posted the findings of this document.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) who are both part of the Department of Health and Human Services, together with the American Cancer Society and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) have collaborated to create the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer.

Information is offered in this document on the incidence and mortality trends currently in the United States.  The previous report was published in March of 2016 where data was gathered between 1975 and 2012 that revealed an increase in the incidence of liver cancer.  The Journal of the National Cancer Institute published the latest report on clinical data collected between 1975 and 2014 that shows a significant decrease in the number of deaths caused by nearly all types of cancer with the exception of only two.

Ahmedin Jemal, Ph.D., of the American Cancer Society led the study in which he also looked at survival rates as a way of evaluating the progress made in the fight against cancer.  Trends in death rates are the most commonly used measure to assess progress against cancer, according to Jemal, and survival trends are also an important measure to evaluate progress in the improvement of cancer outcomes.

Comparing the 5-year survival rates for cancers diagnosed from 1975 to 1977 to those diagnosed between 2006 and 2012, the findings revealed a marked increase in 5-year survival rates during the latter period.  Only cervical and uterine cancers were the exceptions.

Leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, prostate, and kidney cancers had the largest increase in survival rates. These forms of cancer had survival rates that had increased by 25% or more. Thyroid cancer, melanoma and breast cancer in women also were also among the greatest survival rates.

Those that were diagnosed between 2006 and 2012 with the lowest survival rates were cancer of the pancreas, liver, stomach, esophagus, and brain. A special section on cancer survival in 2004 revealed the survival improved over time for almost all cancers at every stage of diagnosis, but survival remains very low for some types of cancer and for most types that are diagnosed at an advanced stage.

These reports can be seen as encouraging, but the need for more preventive measure and resources for identifying risk factors that could help to stave off cancer are needed. The report also found that tobacco-related cancers have low survival rates, which underscore the importance of continuing to do what we know works to significantly reduce tobacco use. We also need to support communities and families in prevention approaches that can help reverse the nation’s obesity epidemic.

This overall cancer death rate in the U.S. is welcome news, reflecting improvements in prevention, early detection, and treatment, but it also shows us that progress has been limited for several cancers and should gain our commitment in efforts to discover new strategies for prevention, early detection, and treatment, and to apply interventions broadly and equitably. I have to add my own opinion though, I wonder what is “fake news” and what is not.

Dr Fredda Branyon

immunodeficiency

Genetic Immunodeficiency In Children

immunodeficiency

Prof. Adrian Liston and prof. Isabelle Meyts, along with a team of scientists, were able to characterize a new genetic immunodeficiency resulting from a mutation in a gene named STAT2. Patients with this mutation are extremely vulnerable to normally mild childhood illnesses such as rotavirus and enterovirus. The analysis of the genetic defect allows clinicians to provide children with the proper therapies before their illnesses prove fatal.  These findings have been published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

It has become possible for researchers to identify extremely subtle defects of the human immune system with the recent advancements in technologies and tools. Prior to these many patients with hidden immunodeficiencies, or defects that were not obvious from the beginning, often became extremely ill or even died before their genetic disorders were diagnosed. The team was able to identify a gene mutation causing an immunodeficiency that can be fatal during childhood, enabling children to be diagnosed, monitored and preemptively treated for the disorder.

These immunodeficiency disorders are not rare. They range from as severe as the well-known “bubble boy” to nearly impossible to detect “hidden” defects.  Immunodeficiencies are more common than scientists previously thought and they have only just begun to scratch the surface when it comes to defining these latter types of immune disorders that can be specific enough to make sufferers highly susceptible to just one or two types of diseases.

Prof. Adrian Liston stated he wouldn’t be surprised if they discover that up to 1 in 100 children are affected at the completion and identification of all genetic immunodeficiencies. The “hidden” ones are especially insidious because they do not present as obviously as other genetic immune disorders. One patient in their study did, unfortunately, die before a diagnosis could be made.  Another patient is alive and well since being diagnosed and is being carefully watched. If they can identify them, they can do something about most immunodeficiencies.

They stress the importance of assessing the severity of childhood illnesses on the part of parents and suggest that parents look for helpful information online and raise the possibility of a potential genetic immunodeficiency with a pediatrician.  Severe common illnesses may signal immune disorders. They feel that when an otherwise healthy child experiences extremely severe infection with a common pathogen like the flu or chickenpox virus, or when a child is particularly vulnerable to infection with a single pathogen, there is most likely an underlying defect in the immune system.  If there is a history of a child in the family succumbing to infection, this should alert the family and the clinician. Identifying the causative gene defect allows for genetic counseling and preventive measures to be taken.

Prof. Adrian Liston’s lab has developed a unique immune phenotyping platform and gene discovery program that can help identify previously unknown immune system defects and inflammatory diseases, aiding in new treatments that can be administered in a timely way to unravel “hidden” immunodeficiencies.  They seek to identify every possible cause of genetic immunodeficiency so that every child displaying warning signs can be tested and treated before it is too late.

Dr. Fredda Branyon

lower back pain

What Is Pheochromocytoma?

lower back pain

Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor that usually grows in the middle of your lower back in your adrenal glands.  This is most commonly found in adults ages 30 to 50, but those of all ages can have it. About 10% of all cases are made up of children.  Few of these tumors spread to other organs but can be dangerous and should be treated right away.

The adrenal glands make hormones that control your metabolism, blood pressure and other important function.  Hormones are released by pheochromocytoma at much higher levels than normal. The hormones that are made by these tumors cause high blood pressure that can damage your heart, brain, lungs, and kidneys.

People with high blood pressure all the time sometimes have these tumors. For other people, it goes up and down. This may also be your only symptom but usually at least one of the following exists as well:

  • Constipation
  • Dizziness when standing
  • Nausea
  • Pale skin
  • Racing heartbeat
  • A severe headache
  • Stomach, side or back pain
  • Unusual sweating

You can experience these symptoms suddenly like an attack, several times a day. They might also happen just a few times a month, but as the tumor grows, these attacks may become stronger and happen more often.

Doctors don’t really know why most of these tumors form, but about 30% seem to run in families and are more likely to be cancerous than ones that appear randomly.  

They can also spread to other parts of your body, including your liver, lungs or bones.  They are also more common in people with inherited disorders or conditions that include Multiple endocrine neoplasias, type II, Von Hippel-Lindau disease, Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) and Hereditary paraganglioma syndrome.

Many who have pheochromocytoma are never diagnosed as the symptoms are so much like those of other conditions, but there are ways to find out if you have one of the tumors, such as:

  • Blood or urine tests to tell if you have high levels of hormones in your body
  • An MRI which uses powerful magnets and radio waves to make images of organs and tissues to check for a tumor
  • A CT scan which puts together several X-rays taken from different angles to see if there’s a tumor.

If you test positive, your doctor may recommend tests to see if it was caused by a genetic disorder and if you are at risk for more in the future.  They will also tell you if your children and other family members are at higher risk.

There is a 50% chance of passing it to a child if the parent has a damaged gene. Surgery is most likely needed to remove the tumor but the surgeon using tiny cuts instead of one large opening.  This is called laparoscopic or minimally invasive surgery that will shorten your recovery time.

If there are tumors in both glands, your surgeon may remove just the tumors and leave part of the glands. If both are removed you can take steroids to help replace the hormones your body usually makes. Chances are good that your symptoms will go away and your blood pressure will return to normal. Radiation and chemotherapy may be used if your tumor is cancerous.

Dr. Fredda Branyon

social media icons

Social Media

social media icons

Can social media leave you socially isolated?  Randy Dotinga from HealthDay Reporter addressed this issue in a recent article.  

When young people spend a lot of time on social media, mainly websites designed to bring people together, it seems to isolate them, according to new research.

They also found that the heaviest users of social media had about twice the odds of feeling socially isolated compared to their less “web-connected” friends.

Study lead author Dr. Brian Primack says that research suggests that those who use social media the most are especially isolated, even though those studies have been small. The new study is an analysis of social media users and so-called social isolation in a large group of people from across the U.S. However, at least one social media expert says the study leaves too many questions unanswered to offer people any practical advice.

This particular study included 1,800 people aged 19 to 32 who completed a 20-minute online questionnaire in 2014.  Half of the participants were female and 59% were white. Income for more than 1/3 was at least $75,000 a year. Those taking part in the research received $15 for the survey.

They were asked questions about how isolated they felt and how often they used Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, YouTube, LinkedIn, Instagram, Pinterest, Tumblr, Vine, Snapchat and Reddit. Those who used the services more in terms of the number of times or in the total amount of time spent were more likely to report feeling isolated from others. Those in the top quarter who frequently checked social media (58+ times a week) were about 3X as likely to have increased social isolation than those who checked the least and visited social media sites less than 9X a week.

The average time that most spent on social media were 61 minutes per day.

Those who spent more than 121 minutes a day had about twice the odds of feeling isolated than those spending less than 30 minutes a day, however, the study had limitations.  It wasn’t designed to prove a cause-and-effect relationship and it’s not clear which came first – the social media use or the feelings of isolation. The study also only looked at those aged 32 and under, so the findings may not be the same in older people.

The study examined people’s use of social media as a whole and not specific sites.  There’s no way to know if people who read glowing posts about their friends’ perfect vacations on Facebook are more or less isolated than those who prefer to watch YouTube videos of cats or bitterly argue about politics on Twitter.

What’s going on if there is no link between social media use and isolation? People who feel more socially isolated do use a lot of social media to try to increase their social circles, but both directions may be at work.  Those feeling socially isolated may reach out on social media to self-medicate, but this might only increase perceptions of social isolation. In conclusion, the findings suggest that people who feel isolated may generally be unable to find a connection through social media and the answer just might be going offline.

Dr. Fredda Branyon